Catesby’s Insight on Extinct and Endangered Animals

By Kendall Hallberg

Mark Catesby’s Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas is an important resource for studying the animals and habitats living in these areas. Catesby’s works are some of the only remaining sources we have for many now rare and extinct animals. These historical records continue to be a valuable resource in discovering and protecting our biodiversity.

Over a hundred years ago, the Passenger Pigeon went from being the most numerous bird in America to complete extinction. Descriptions of these birds highlight the enormity of their numbers saying, “Throughout the 19th century, witnesses had described . . . sightings of pigeon migrations: how they took hours to pass over a single spot, darkening the firmament and rendering normal conversation inaudible” (Yeoman 2014). Catesby echoes this in saying that their numbers were so great “that in some places where they roost, which they do on one another’s backs, they often break down the limbs of Oaks with their weight, and leave their dung some inches thick under the trees they roost on” (Catesby, 1731, p.23). Sadly, these birds were hunted to extinction with the last one dying in captivity in 1914 (Yeoman, 2014).

Around the same time that the world lost the Passenger Pigeon, the Carolina Parakeet also became extinct. Carolina Parakeets were sighted and described by Catesby and much later by John James Audubon. While these birds were once numerous in many areas in North America, they are no longer. “What’s more, scientists don’t know what really drove these parakeets to extinction. Some thought it was habitat loss. Some thought it was hunting and trapping. Some thought disease.” (Burgio, 2018). Catesby cites that, “The orchards in autumn are visited by numerous flights of them; where they make great destruction for their kernels only”, which is a supporting argument for hunting and trapping due to damages as a means of extinction (Catseby, 1731, p.11). Interesting fact: both Martha, the last know Passenger Pigeon, and the last captive Carolina Parakeet were held by the Cincinnati Zoo.

Right click on image to see it full size.

Catesby’s descriptions can give us insight into the history of many unique animals. For example, not extinct, but categorized as endangered, is the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker, which has nearly disappeared since the time of Catesby’s works. Though there have not been any conclusive sightings of the woodpecker in 73 years, the species is still categorized as critically endangered (Donahue, 2017). Birds are not the only species recorded by Catesby to have found themselves in dire straits. He also included a few sea turtles in his works that are all now categorized as vulnerable or worse.  The Loggerhead, Green, and Hawksbill sea turtles are illustrated and described in Catesby’s Natural History. Hawksbill sea turtles in particular are critically endangered due to threats from habitat loss and illegal trade (NOAA Fisheries, n.d.). Catesby’s accounts of these creatures may hold valuable information about cultural practices and environmental causes for their decline.

While it is sad to learn about the demise of these species, it is also incredible that we have Catesby’s accounts to reference and learn about their significance. The animals mentioned above are not the only ones that Catesby identified that have become endangered, but just the few that I chose to focus on. Coming up, I plan to share more about the incredible (and sometimes rare) animals and plants captured in their environments by Catesby.

 

References

Mizell and the AFSC

By Stephanie Gilbert

M. Hayes Mizell and Mary Berry, Assistant Secretary for Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare

The M. Hayes Mizell Papers is an important collection that Digital Collections (Digi) is currently working on.  This Civil Rights collection consists of over 160 boxes which is the largest that Digi is currently digitizing.  These past few months I have been scanning box 111 which is a collection of speeches by, or connected to, Mizell from the 1960’s and 70’s.  As mentioned in my previous blog, Hayes Mizell was the Director of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC).  The AFSC is mentioned frequently in the majority of speeches scanned, which led me to research a bit more about them and Mizell’s connection with the group in South Carolina.

“Founded in 1917, the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Quaker organization that promotes lasting peace with justice, as a practical expression of faith in action” (About us, n.d.).  Established during World War I, the AFSC allowed objectors to serve their country without violence.  “They drove ambulances, ministered to the wounded, and stayed on in Europe after the armistice to rebuild war-ravaged communities” (AFSC history, n.d.).  The promotion of peaceful communities was not only a worldwide goal, but also a goal for smaller areas, such as South Carolina.  “By 1966 [Mizell] had come to work for AFSC as the South Carolina field representative of what was called ‘the American Friends Service Committee–NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund School Desegregation Task Force’” (Mizell, 1973, p. 2).  As their representative, he worked with people in the community, met with federal officials, and advocated for desegregation in schools.  In a way, Mizell became a voice for people who could not be heard.  He spoke up for lower income communities and worked hard for students and teachers who faced racial segregation as well as encouraging them to stand up for their rights and demand equal opportunities.

Bettye Boone, Hayes Mizell, and Jackie Williams – Southeastern Public Education Program – Staff Training for Title I Project, c. 1970’s

Mizell’s work reached far beyond the Civil Rights era and is still influencing people today.  The University of South Carolina’s African American Studies Program offers the Hayes Mizell Research Award.  This is awarded to students in African American Studies who utilize the Mizell Collection for scholarly research.  Each of the two students chosen receives five hundred dollars to aid in their research and writing. I am over halfway done scanning the Mizell collection, with around fifty boxes to go.  Check back in March for an update on my progress!

References

Natural History, Digitized

By Mēgan A. Oliver, Digital Collections Librarian, UofSC. [Cross-posted from Mining McKissick, McKissick Museum’s blog]

Digitizing natural history collections is quickly becoming a specialty of ours, over at the Digital Collections department at the University of South Carolina Libraries. We’ve partnered with McKissick Museum for the past few years on their nationally grant-funded digitization project entitled ‘Historic Southern Naturalists’ (HSN); many thanks to the Institute of Museum and Library Services for the grant. This digital project has been highly collaborative and has produced a useful and beautiful web portal from which to access myriad museum collections of fossils, rocks, dried botanicals, and minerals, as well as the library’s collection of early naturalist manuscripts.

The Bahamas Titmous[e], first edition of Mark Catesby’s “The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands”, 1731.
Since the HSN digital collaboration yielded such great results in providing museum and library users with fantastic historical resources, we’re excited to be back at the beginning of a new natural history digital collection.

In 2019, UofSC officially established the Mark Catesby Centre, a collective of scientists, librarians, curators, rare book experts, and naturalists, with invested personnel spread across the United States and the United Kingdom. The Catesby Centre’s work revolves around researching and promoting the ever-important findings and illustrative records of Mark Catesby, a naturalist who came to study biology in the Carolinas, Florida, and the Bahamas almost three centuries ago. Catesby’s seminal work predates that of Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus by 29 years, with Catesby’s first edition of natural history findings published in 1729. Linnaeus would not release his now-famous biological classification system until 1758. The entirety of Catesby’s work in his multivolume set “The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands” was published over the course of 18 years, beginning in May of 1729 and ending in July of 1747.

Digitizing these rare and sometimes delicate natural history items requires specialty scanners and camera equipment, fully trained staff, and a great deal of time and patience. We strive to ensure that the color balance and tone distribution captured with our digitization equipment is as true to the physical, original item as possible. Calibrating and staging a single shot or scan can take up to 30 minutes, or the process could involve multiple scans of the same item in order to get the digital facsimile just right. In our department, this attention to detail often captures the iridescence and depth of the pigments used to hand color illustrations, as well as the texture of paper and the organic signs of age that rare books exhibit. Our staff, often graduates of the School of Library and Information Science here at UofSC, take great pride in producing such detailed work, as digital collections like these provide researchers with the next best thing to seeing a rare item in person; seeing it anywhere in the world at any time, online.

Last year alone, we digitized and helped to format metadata (data that describes the digitized items online) for about 12,000 items for the Historic Southern Naturalists digital collection, and we scanned a little over 2,500 pages and prints from our Catesby rare books.  In creating yet another stunning natural history digital collection for students, scholars, and historians to peruse, we hope to create a diverse wealth of natural history primary resources online.

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Image

The Bahamas Titmous[e], first edition of Mark Catesby’s “The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands”, 1731.

References

Introduction to James T. McCain

By: Chauna Carr, Kaylin Daniels, and Laura Stillwagon

James T. McCain (1905-2003) was a Civil Rights activist remembered for his selfless volunteering and organized marches. One of his main endeavors was making it possible for African Americans to register to vote during the Civil Rights era. As a very active Civil Rights leader, he was incredibly organized, making note of everything he did, down to his car mileage. His collection is housed and maintained by the South Caroliniana Library here at the University of South Carolina, and consists of yearly calendars and notebooks used as day planners to organize his Civil Rights endeavors.

McCain was a huge supporter of the War Resisters League – many of his calendars held at South Caroliniana Library are from this organization. For those who do not know, the War Resisters League has been around since 1932. They work to spread nonviolence and advocate to end war. As shown by their calendar covers, the League supported other movements and prominent non-violent figures of social justice, like a calendar in the McCain collection that includes a dedication to Mahatma Gandhi, and one to Jessie Wallace Hughan, an American educator, social activist, and radical pacifist.

Another calendar supports equality for women, and another promotes Civil Rights peace with the gospel song lyrics “We shall overcome”. One of our favorite calendars includes a photographic collection of the Civil Rights Movement and some other fun features like rock and roll music lyrics and an uplifting message for peace. The calendars themselves are very inspiring; with many motivational poems and quotes included throughout. McCain interacted extensively with his calendars and each one shows what he believed and aligned with. Illustrated with the pacifistic nature of Gandhi, equality for women, and using one’s right to protest, the calendar covers were a reminder of what McCain was fighting for.

“We Shall Overcome”, 1964 Calendar cover by War Resisters League
“We Shall Overcome”, 1964 Calendar cover by War Resisters League
1960 Engagement Calendar created by the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
1960 Engagement Calendar created by the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
“Days of Gandhi”, 1969 Calendar by War Resisters League
“Days of Gandhi”, 1969 Calendar by War Resisters League

McCain used his calendars to plan his events, track his meetings and travels, and record other miscellaneous things about his daily life; for instance, he logged his speedometer readings, meal prices, and resting days. On top of recording local community accomplishments, he always tried to acknowledge the achievements of people of color by taping or stapling news coverage of their successes directly into his calendars. For example, he wrote:

“Sumter schools reopen today – black parents and citizens negotiated with school authorities not to dismiss students to roam the streets again but try to deal with protesters at sch. Mission successful.”

 

 

Here are some other examples:

“Negro Will Be Horry County Town’s Mayor” news clipping from the State, August 20, 1968
“Negro Will Be Horry County Town’s Mayor” news clipping from the State, August 20, 1968
“Negro Leads Conway Vote” news clipping from the State, Oct. 9, 1968
“Negro Leads Conway Vote” news clipping from the State, Oct. 9,

James T. McCain was a prolific figure working behind the scenes during the Civil Rights movement. The South Caroliniana Library is in the process of preserving and displaying McCain’s collection, and Digital Collections is working in collaboration with them to digitize his work. We’re digitizing this archival collection of day planners as part of a university awarded ASPIRE II grant, written by Graham Duncan, Head of Collections and Curator of Manuscripts at South Caroliniana Library; Bobby J. Donaldson, Associate Professor and Head of the Center for Civil Rights History and Research; and Mēgan A. Oliver, Digital Collections Librarian.

There’s still more to come! This project is still in process and on track to being completed this semester. We are looking forward to learning more, and sharing more, about James T. McCain!

 

“Fifteeners”: Early Printed Books (Incunabula) at University of South Carolina Libraries

By Laura Stillwagon

"Opus", book top
“Opus”, book top

*Sigh* … Alas, books are no longer what they once were. To the readers of the 15th century in Europe (i.e. medieval Europe), bound works were both tools and art; heavily designed with functional and ornate elements. Bound items were prized possessions and served the purpose of recording information and looking great while doing it. In the Department of Irvin Rare Books and Special Collections, there are a number of these beautiful items, called incunabula (bound works created and published before 1501 in Europe), which were digitized and made available online by a graduate assistant here at Digital Collections, Kelsey Andrus. Her work on the Fifteeners digital collection emulates how luxurious these books were, and are still.

During the summer of 2019, Kelsey picked up the process of digitizing the collection after my work during the previous semester, and took it in stride. The previous spring, she endured trainings with me and the Qidenus SMART Book Scanner, an Austrian image capture machine that utilizes the power of two DSLR cameras. She also learned the post-processing procedures I had created for the project. To improve the experience of at-home users looking to view how well constructed these works are, she added scans of the edges and spines of the books. It took some ingenuity on her part to do this, for the image capture machine was intended only to photograph books laid flat, open or closed. To capture some attractive angles of the aged edges of the pages and binding, she gently leaned the book vertically against stacked pieces of foam—professional troubleshooting at its finest. The results come close to simulating the experience of viewing the book in person, showing not only the colors and contrast on the pages with ornate type, but also the detail in the binding.

"Opus", prologue
“Opus”, prologue

Through digitizing these books, Kelsey has made it possible to see the handmade details of each page. She measured the size of type, making note of the differences between titles, headlines, capitals and other instances. Some of these books do contain color and gold details (called illumination), and many have remained in remarkable conditions, sustaining minor damage and wear.

There are hardly any books that look like these on the shelves of stores or in peoples’ homes. Granted, publishing and reading are much more common now, making books and other materials much more available. However, all that aside, there is nothing like taking out the ol’ leather bound and turning the richly adorned pages to make reading a little bit more immersive.

See the  incunabula we reference above, “Opus postillarum et sermonum de tempore”, here: https://cdm17173.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p17173coll37/id/480/rec/1

Introduction to the M. Hayes Mizell Papers

By Stephanie Gilbert

My name is Stephanie Gilbert and I am one of the new Digital Assistants here at Digital Collections. Perhaps some of you have heard of Hayes Mizell. For several years, Mizell was a prominent Civil Rights Activist.  He served as director of the South Carolina Community Relations Program of the American Friends Service Committee from 1966-1982, and in one of his speeches likened his role to that of a “professional advocate”.  Mizell traveled all over the U.S. delivering speeches in support of school integration and educational improvements for students from low-income families. His collection includes personal images of himself and his associates as well as letters, programs, and copies of his many speeches.

Three Negative Strips from a Photoshoot for Hayes Mizell 
Three Negative Strips from a Photoshoot for Hayes Mizell
Hayes Mizell Giving a Speech 
Hayes Mizell Giving a Speech

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So, what exactly is my role when digitizing this collection?  As the digital assistant, the first step is always scanning.  I ensure that each item is clearly scanned, edited, and stored in the proper format. Next, I create metadata that is entered into an excel spreadsheet which will then be run through a series of programs to polish the data.  It then gets loaded online through ContentDM which makes it public so that researchers have full access to the materials.  Though this process is lengthy and detail heavy, it ensures that another format of the materials exist, so the documents are preserved physically and digitally.

Speech by Hayes Mizell to AFSC Middle Atlantic Regional Office Fall Retreat, October 2, 1976 
Speech by Hayes Mizell to AFSC Middle Atlantic Regional Office Fall Retreat, October 2, 1976

New job + new skill set = amazing!  I am thoroughly enjoying my time here at Digital Collections.  I have found it quite refreshing to meet new people and learn more about a different area of information science.  The environment is quiet, peaceful, and filled with friendly people who are a pleasure to work with and learn from.  I am also enjoying the Mizell Collection.  I find that I always become fond of whatever collection I work on.  I tend to form an emotional connection through physically handling documents, and the items in this collection to me serve as the physical embodiment of Mizell’s influence in the community.  It is so easy to form an attachment when you think of his work in this way.  It is also eye-opening to preserve items digitally as opposed to physically rehousing with folders and boxes.  I look forward to what else my future spent with Digital Collections and the Hayes Mizell Collection will hold!

How To Cure a Cold in One Day: and Other Medicinal Oddities from the Past

By Allison Rogers

Hey. How are you feeling? Do you have a runny nose? A slight but persistent cough? Perhaps even a fever? Sounds like a cold to me. And if you’re in Gaffney, South Carolina in 1905, you’re in luck! This excerpt of a 1905 issue of ‘The Ledger’ from Gaffney, South Carolina reads “To cure a cold in one day, take Laxative Bromo Quinine Cold Tablets!”

The Ledger Friday, December 9, 1904
The Ledger Friday, December 9, 1904

Widely known as a cure for influenza, the Bromo Quinine tablets’ main active ingredient was quinine hydrobromide, which resulted in long term psychiatric and neurological damage to those who consistently ingested the tablets (Olson, 2003; “Bromo Quinine Cold Tablets,” 2019)

Perhaps your illness is more serious, and you have determined that you suffer from a “disease of circulation” (whatever that means). Good thing you have Handcock’s Liquid Sulphur! You have at last found “nature’s own remedy from the bosom of Mother Earth”.

The Ledger Friday, November 25, 1904
The Ledger Friday, November 25, 1904

Two years later in November of 1907, an inspector from the Department of Agriculture (DOA) purchased the Liquid Sulphur. One of the samples was subjected to analysis in the Bureau of Chemistry at the DOA and was determined to consist of an aqueous solution of commercial calcium sulphid, which was not a natural germicide, as was claimed on the label. The bureau found that the claims made by Handcock’s Liquid Sulphur were “false, misleading, and deceptive” (Gane & Webster, 1909).

The Ledger Friday, November 4, 1904
The Ledger Friday, November 4, 1904

Finally, we have everyone’s favorite medicine Pe-ru-na, used to treat about anything you can think of. Peruna was one of the most popular medicines sold from the late 19th to mid 20th century. Samuel Hartman, creator of Peruna, was making as much as $100,000 a day from the product, which was believed to work so well that babies were named after it (Hunter, 2012). In 1906, a claim was made that Peruna and other patent-medicines were frauds, alleging that Peruna itself was 28% alcohol. This claim, among others, led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 (Kennedy, 2000), whose main purpose was to ban diluted or mislabeled food and drug products. Basically, the law was a “truth in labeling” law designed to raise standards in the food and drug industries and protect the reputations and pocketbooks of honest businessmen.

To check out more ads with absurd scientifically falsified claims, check out the Historical Newspapers of South Carolina! The clippings seen here are from The Ledger, which we are hard at work digitizing. Until it’s released, check out our other new titles which also feature fun medical solutions for your ailments: McCormick Messenger and The Sun (Newberry, SC).  https://historicnewspapers.sc.edu/

 

 

Works Cited

Olson, K. R., Anderson, I. B., & Benowitz, N. L. (2004). Poisoning & drug overdose. New York: Lange

Bromo Quinine Cold Tablets.; Grove Laboratories; 1940s; Fincham Collection 237. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ehive.com/collections/4339/objects/358512/bromo-quinine-cold-tablets

Gane, E. H. & Webster, M. H. (1909). Laboratory Notes from the Analytical Department of McKesson & Robbins. Drug Topics, 24(2), p.22

Hunter, B. (2012). A historical guidebook to old Columbus: Finding the past in the present in Ohio’s capital city.

Kennedy, S.  (2000, February). Adams, Samuel Hopkins (1871-1958), muckraker and writer. American National Biography. Retrieved 26 Nov. 2019, from https://www.anb.org/view/10.1093/anb/9780198606697.001.0001/anb-9780198606697-e-1600013

 

‘At-risk Digital Materials’  

By Kate Foster Boyd

In Digital Collections, we scan and create digital files from analog materials every day.  It is exciting and fun to make these rare and special collections, such as old maps, diaries, books, and photographs available online for a wide audience.  The University of South Carolina Libraries has been digitizing special collections for fifteen years. Not long, but long enough to watch as archives have begun grappling with born digital materials, faculty have asked for the Libraries to preserve their digital projects, and donors have requested that their emails and social media be preserved. 

USC Libraries’ Special Collections are receiving digital at-risk materials more and more. Irvin Department of Rare Books now has a few collections from current or recently deceased authors that are on hard drives. One donor has requested that their social media be saved, and two collections have email preservation needs. South Carolina Political Collections receives a lot of their collections on hard drives. University Archives must manage digital photography, born digital reports, and web site preservation. The management of these new types of digital materials require new skills and processes by the curators and archivists. 

Some of our most at-risk materials are current newspapers in our state. About a year ago, several of us received phone calls and emails from vendors telling us they would no longer send microfilm copies of the newspaper titles we purchased, only the digital files. This has prompted many meetings and much discussion about next steps with managing modern newspaper access and preservation. We are currently working on new workflows for acquiring and making available these online, digital resources. 

The Libraries has made efforts to preserve digital information and materials for years. Initial backups were on CD-ROMS and then a RAID server. Policies and procedures have been formed through attending conferences and joining appropriate consortia, like LOCKSS, MetaArchive, the POWRR Workshop, and the National Digital Stewardship Alliance, and following the Library of Congress and the Digital Preservation Coalition’s web sites. We are now following the North East Document Conservation Center’s latest handbook, working on updating our policy and workflows, ensuring people know their roles and the administration supports our efforts. A colleague is investigating Archivematica, an open-source application for processing archival materials, and better cloud storage solutions. Digital preservation is not done once, but constantly. As Trevor Owen’s says in his book, Theory and Craft of Digital Preservation, it is a vocation.  

My hope is that starting in 2020, we will have a solid plan for preserving this digital material into the future. Software, web sites, email, research data, digital collections, date sets, born digital documents, and more are all a concern and academic libraries must have a plan for taking care of these formats. To me, if the collections are made accessible by librarians and used by patrons, there is a chance that they will be maintained into the future. When people stop studying and learning from these materials, then they will disappear. 

A Most Impressive Quilt from McKissick Museum

By Chauna Carr

We recently worked with McKissick Museum’s Curator of Collections, Christian Cicimurri, to digitize one of their new acquisitions, an impressive paper pieced mosaic quilt top with a very interesting backstory. Donated to McKissick this past April by Mr. Pickett Wright, the piece is an unfinished mosaic quilt top made of fabric wrapped around hexagonal paper templates. The fabric has been “fussy cut,” so the resulting medallions make a design themselves. (Fussy cut simply means when a piece of fabric has been cut to target a specific area of a print, rather than just cutting the fabric into random pieces.)

A photograph of a Young Rebecca Margaret Pickens Salley
A Young Rebecca Margaret Pickens Salley

According to Mrs. Cicimurri, “[Mr. Pickett Wright] is a direct descendant of  General Andrew Pickens (1793-1817) – the Wizard Owl of the Revolutionary War and a U.S. Congressman from 1775-1783.  He is not entirely sure who made the quilt or exactly when, but feels certain (from conversations with his grandmother—Annie Lena Salley Smith) that it was either Rebecca Margaret Pickens Salley (1832-1893) of Orangeburg, SC (great-granddaughter of Gen. Pickens), or one of her daughters, Emma Legare Salley Evans (1869-1963) or Mary Boone Salley (1863-1941). These daughters were his grandmother’s sisters.”

Family legend suggests the paper pieces used for backing were letters written home by a confederate soldier, but there is no direct evidence of this claim. The paper used is largely handwritten letters and handwriting practice sheets with the dates of 1872 and 1874 visible.

McKissick is very excited to add this to their robust collection of quilts ranging from about 1815 to around 2016. Keep an eye out for the final images of the quilt coming soon! To give you a taste, here is our team in the process of digitizing this masterpiece.

 

Fresh Batch of DBQ’s!

By Kate Boyd & John Quirk

Calling all Social Studies Teachers! As you begin to think about returning to the classroom, please consider using a document-based question from this Fresh Batch!

Those of us working in Digital Collections spend our days providing access to rare and unique materials from the various Special Collection libraries on campus. We often marvel at the potential educational value of the digitized primary source materials. We have long sought to broaden the awareness of our digital collections to elementary school and high school teachers and encourage them to incorporate some of these materials into their lesson plans.

In 2017, Digital Collections and the S.C. State Department of Education’s Social Studies Coordinators received funding from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) for a Literacy and Engagement with Historical Records grant. This grant funded three workshops for a total of forty-five teachers to write document-based questions using the Libraries and SC Digital Library’s digital collections. The workshops were conducted during the Summers of 2017 and 2018 with great success.

Thanks to a lot of support and help from Social Studies teachers, coordinators, and outside reviewers, we are finally at the stage of making these resources available online. The S.C. State Department of Education’s Social Studies Associates assisted throughout the project. Carolina Yetman and Lewis Huffman wrote the grant with USC Libraries’ Digital Collections. Jeff Eargle and Elizabeth King conducted the first workshop; and Stephen Corsini assisted with the last workshop and final stages of the grant. Three outside reviewers (Greg Grupe, Fay Gore, and Franky Abbott) with pedagogical backgrounds in K12, reviewed all the DBQs to ensure their integrity and Elizabeth King made sure they are up to the 2020 Social Studies standards. We were lucky to have the same excellent teacher, Matt Rose of Lexington Richland 5, teach the teachers for all three workshops.  Thank you, Matt! Also, thanks to those teachers that attended the Middle School and Social Studies conferences to share their work. We hope teachers across the country will use these to engage students in learning about South Carolina history.

The DBQ’s are presented in the South Carolina Digital Academy, a web-based resource, hosted by the University of South Carolina, that makes it easy to browse by grade level and subject matter. The lesson plans incorporate a wide variety of digitized materials such as maps, correspondence, photographs, moving images, posters and more. These types of primary source materials can bring history to life for students, giving them a window into the thoughts and feelings of generations past. By providing divergent view points and opinions in contemporary materials they encourage critical thinking. These tangible connections to the past can also create empathy for students who might otherwise feel distanced from it.

The S.C Digital Academy portal acts as a detailed catalog for the DBQ’s featuring easily accessible standards, vocabulary, time required, questions, contextual information and support materials. Each entry links to downloadable pdf documents that are designed to help make it easy for teachers to incorporate digitized primary resources into their classroom activities.

We are in the process of adding forty-four DBQs to the site, so check back frequently to see what is new. Some of the ones just up: