New year, new goals. We’re planning several internal projects of note, with a few grants and lots of ongoing collections work thrown into the mix. Primarily, we’re starting a collection-wide metadata assessment for all 261 of our current collections. This assessment will take approximately 4 months with one full-time librarian and two part-time professional staff dividing the work. Once the assessment is complete, we will prioritize ‘worst first’ and begin the oversized task of remedying metadata mistakes, unicode/machine readable transliteration problems, ADA accessibility issues, and Dublin Core mapping mishaps. Human error runs through the work that is cataloging and metadata entries, and we’re not immune! This planned overhaul will most likely take upward of two years with current staffing levels.
Finally, we’re bringing the tenets of UX and UI to our work here in the department. Looking at digital exhibitions and digital humanities tools, we’re assessing what works best with our digital collections needs, staff skill sets, departmental budget, and time. We hope to offer a small suite of new DH options to our internal campus users, so aesthetically pleasing and fully functional web interfaces for our external users are created, with an eye towards what best suits the materials we’re presenting. Story Maps, Timeline, Scalar, and OxGarage are all under investigation for their potential uses with digital collections and exhibitions. At the end of spring, we hope to have some answers and a plan!
We’re invested in making our departmental process is clear and we enjoy using our blog to make everything we do as transparent and accessible as possible, for our readers, users, and colleagues outside of UofSC. Let us know if there’s something you’d like to hear about in the comments. Til next time!
I landed in digital collections by pure serendipity. I entered the Public History program with a focus on historic preservation at the University of South Carolina. Receiving no funding from my department, I applied for a position in Digital Collections helping to digitize The Gamecock from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s. Discovering my love for Library Science too late, I continue to work in Digital Collections hoping to build upon my interest in how digital collections can be used for historical preservation. Over the last few months, I have worked on five different projects including digitizing a portion of the John Caldwell Calhoun papers.
In planning for the Teacher Workshops for Social Studies teachers, library organizers selected the John Caldwell Calhoun papers for use in the workshop. A controversial figure of history today, Calhoun was an active proponent of slavery and states’ rights during his political career. A native of South Carolina, Calhoun served in the United States House of Representatives, became the Secretary of War and became the Vice President of United States. Thus, it was easy to see why items from this collection were ideal for a workshop focused on helping social studies teachers utilize digital collections in their classroom.
This collection consists mainly of business and personal correspondence of John C. Calhoun from the South Caroliniana Library, little of which was digitized. For the workshop, a few letters were selected to be digitized. In selecting this letters, however, it was discovered that these letters were silked, in attempt to preserve the letters. Silking was a conservation technique used in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth centuries. In basic terms, this process consisted of adhering a thin piece of transparent silk to a document. The reasoning behind this process was to slow down the deterioration process of the paper (Barrow, 1942; McCarthy, 2016).
In digitizing the Calhoun papers for the Teacher’s Workshop, my initial thoughts were on time management for the project, in order to ensure that everything was accessible and usable for the workshop. Thus, my focus was on the project flow of this endeavor, scanning all the items and ensuring clear images, that any questions about the metadata edited, and everything loaded on the library depository, well before the deadline. Although it was interesting to see and work with letters that went through this early method of preservation, the fact that items in this collection were silked was not a part of my initial focus.
I started by scanning letters from the Calhoun collection on the Zeutschel, a large flat base scanner in the Digital Collections office. In looking at the first images of the scanned letters, I noted problems in seeing the handwriting in the images. Since the letters were going to be used in a workshop, and the fact that handwriting from the nineteenth century materials are in themselves hard to read, the clearest images were needed. Thus, I sought advice on getting more clear images. The library consulted a conservator to see what could be done about the silked documents while in the office, basic research was conducted into experiences from other libraries and archives in using silked materials.
One unexpected outcome of silked archival items it that the items become harder to read over time. The aluminum in the paste affected the acidity of the paper, resulting in ink dissolving and discoloration of the paper overall. It is possible that this what led to the discoloration in the documents. Further research also revealed that this process often used arsenic. While there was no evidence that these materials contained arsenic, I took precautions and wore gloves when handling the Calhoun papers (Information Resource Management Association, 2019; McCarthy, 2016).
While the problem with clarity of some of the images remained, I continued to scan the letters and began to create metadata in hopes some of the images could still be used in the Teachers Workshop. The last step was to add the images and metadata in to the library’s digital depository known as CONTENTdm, so the images would be accessible online through the Library’s website. Some of the more legible images were used in the teacher’s workshop. The fully digitized John Caldwell Calhoun collection can be found here: https://digital.library.sc.edu/collections/john-c-calhoun-papers/
Barrow, W. J. Restoration Methods. (1942) The American Archivist. Page 152 Retrieved from http://www.americanarchivist.org/doi/pdf/10.17723/aarc.6.3.497248722g4584rr?code=SAME-site.
Information Resource Management Association USA. (2019). Digital Curation: Breakthrough in Research and Practice. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=lcxjDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA200&lpg=PA200&dq=arsenic+in+silking+archival+materials&source=bl&ots=ymV2dnhioj&sig=nzhC0NeX3EpyvjEGAzeaKA2nyAU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiwv5jFv-rdAhWC21MKHcwZDfAQ6AEwCXoECAIQAQ#v=onepage&q=arsenic%20in%20silking%20archival%20materials&f=false.
At the beginning of the 2017-2018 school year, South Carolina Political Collections (SCPC) began their yearlong grant project with National Historical Publications & Records Commission (NHPRC). They were granted funding to rehouse and digitize William D. Workman’s entire photograph collection. The grant provided for an assistantship originally awarded to Mae Howe, a current graduate student at the University of South Carolina’s School of Library and Information Science. She carried the project through to the second stage where Chauna Carr, also a graduate student in UofSC’s SLIS program, picked it up and will see it through to the end. To read more about the launch of the project and the phases of reprocessing click here!
Chauna found her way to archiving through an undergraduate degree in History with minors in Classical Studies and Art History from Virginia Tech (VT). She knew she wanted to pursue archiving as well as library science from having worked at the VT main campus library throughout her entire undergraduate career (a total of five years). During that time, she also found herself volunteering at local institutions in town who needed help organizing their small collections. It was there she found her love of archiving. One could say it came from her deep-seated love for organization and bringing order to a chaotic space. The work at these small local institutions was just that. She was given the opportunity to reorganize entire libraries, update book databases, create inventories, rifle through boxes of old letters and closets full of costumes, and throughout that process learn about her hometown and neighboring areas and the past generations who lived there.
Upon finding great joy in archival processing (which she did not know she was doing until she came to UofSC), she began looking for masters programs that would give her not only the necessary education to become an archivist but also a varied enough background that she could venture into any arena in which an archivist could be found. Upon starting her degree, she quickly discovered that archiving crosses many fields. Corporate, political, medical, and commercial businesses all need an archivist in some capacity to handle their records, whether digital or otherwise. The name of the position may be different, but the job itself will still hold similar elements. Chauna initially looked at museum studies programs wanting to focus on archives in museums.
However, UofSC’s library science program appealed to her for its versatility. A student could essentially build their own program apart from the three required courses necessary to complete the degree. The university itself boasts an excellent history program as well as a museum management certificate both of which provide courses that she figured would make up an excellent and well-rounded masters program. Thus Chauna found herself applying to her father’s alma mater. A fact that initially dissuaded her from applying, since his specialty in libraries is more data analysis and computer science, which does not appeal to her at all (at least not the data analysis part).
She was accepted in 2016 and immediately began searching for a part-time job to gain more hands-on experience to complement her degree. That is how she landed at SCPC. She has been there going on two years and three months now. In that time she has learned so much from the wonderful staff that works there including archival processing and arrangement, metadata, digitization practices, working a reference desk, handling patron requests and more. This grant project has been a great opportunity to exercise all the skills she has learned from SCPC thus far.