South Carolina Interviews

The South Carolina conference “The South Carolina Woman: Heritage to Horizons” preceded the national conference by several months and took place in Columbia, South Carolina, June 10 & 11, 1977. (State conferences occurred around the country in the summer prior to the National Women’s Conference in Houston in November of that same year.)

South Carolina was one of only three known state conferences that recorded interviews with participants (the other two being New York and Vermont).  This state-level conference collection contains approximately 150 interviews, gathering diverse voices from around the state to provide workshops, identify women’s concerns, and elect delegates to the National Women’s Conference.

Ethel Allen

Originally from Philadelphia, PA
Former International Women’s Year Commissioner

Merry Bateman

Columbia, SC
23 years old and support of women’s rights issues

George Blackburn

Retired teacher
Furman University Class of 1922

Catherine Brisbon

Bishopville, SC
Worked with kindergartners
Positive assessment of IWY

Malissa Burnette

Columbia, SC
President of Columbia chapter of NOW
Second congressional district coordinator for ERA

Dwight Cargile

West Columbia, SC
Interested in women’s career options and working against discrimination

Sarah Cargile

James Island, SC
Mother of Nine
Attended conference with son and eldest daughter

Septima P. Clark

African-American woman
Civil Rights activist

Jim Clyburn

Sumter, SC
Head of SC Human Affairs Commission (in 1977)
U.S. Representative for SC’s 6th Congr. District (1993- )

Kathlyn (Kathy) E. Coleman

Interested in women’s rights and creativity
Drawn to the women’s movement after her divorce

Betty Corns

Mauldin, SC
Interested in grassroots organizing

Joanne Cox

Columbia, SC
Worked at Midlands Technical College
Conference critique

Christlee Daniels

Licensed vocational nurse
Freelance journalist
Military spouse

Bernita DeGraffenreid

Workplace discrimination and pay inequality
Assess the women’s liberation movement

A.L. Delaine

Clarendon County, SC
Retired teacher and social worker
African-American; Civil rights activist
Relative of Reverend Joseph DeLaine
Allen University Class of 1923

Caroline Drakeford

Columbia, South Carolina
Traditional expectations of women’s work
Hesitant to support the ERA, but believes in workplace fairness

Edith Edwards

Greenville, South Carolina
A teacher and a widow
Devout Christian
Impact of humanism and Communism

Vickie Eslinger

Columbia, South Carolina
Lawyer and women’s rights activist
Workshop leader: women’s legal rights in the employment sector
Attended University of South Carolina

Leah Evans

Bishopville, SC
Encouraged to attend by the Department of Social Services

Naomi Feingold

Student at University of California, Santa Cruz
Interested in nursing and midwifery
Called for reforms in women’s healthcare

Dorothy McDuffy Fitzpatrick

Columbia, SC
African-American woman
Leader of workshop on women, counseling, and mental health

Don Fowler

Columbia, SC (from Spartanburg)
Chairman, South Carolina Democratic Party (in 1977)
Political Science professor, University of South Carolina
Chairman, Democratic National Committee (1995-1997)

Dorothy Franklin

McCormick, SC
Activist in the Civil Rights Movement and the Women’s Movement
NAACP member, African-American woman age 53

Carolyn Frederick

Greenville, SC
Pro-ERA legislative efforts
Member of American Association of University Women

Laura B. Frederick

Organgeburg, SC
Retired third-grade teacher
Positive view of the conference

Elaine Fremont

Greenville, SC
Reporter for Faith for the Family magazine
Supporter of equal rights, but not the ERA

Sara Friedman

Columbia, SC
Mental health and counseling professional
Not affiliated with any women’s organizations

Tanzella Gaither

Rock Hill, SC
29-year-old graduate student
Interested in economic change

Jania Galvin

Columbia, SC (from New York City)
Active in the women’s movement, state campaigns, and the Carter presidential campaign

Velma Garrett

Saluda, SC
Political activist and mother

Alberta Glover

Ridgeland, SC
Senior citizen
Discusses workplace discrimination

Gail Ardelia Glover

High school student
Mother interviewed too
International women’s issues and violence against women

Ruth Glover

Charleston, SC
Member of League of Women Voters and the National Association of Women in Construction
Interested in senior citizen workshop

Sarah Gobel

Charleston, SC
Opposes internationalism and a “one world government”

Eleanor Golar-Williams

Columbia, SC
Professor of Social work, University of South Carolina
Howard University Alumna

Mary Jane Golden

Kingstree, SC
Member of the Provisional League of Women Voters and the Women Religious in South Carolina

Virginia S. Goosey

EEOC officer at the Savannah River Plant
Supporter of the women’s movement

Wil Lou Gray

Columbia, SC
Age 94
Influential educator and founder of the Wil Lou Gray Opportunity School
Columbia College alumna

Virginia Grose

Vice President of South Carolina National Bank
Advertising and public relations specialist
Designed program materials for the conference

Gary F. Hardee

West Columbia, SC
Small-business owner
Believed IWY should not have a stance on the ERA

Sharon Harper

From Kalamazoo, Michigan
Living in Greenville, SC
Helps run a small family business

Alec Harvey

Clarendon County, SC
Member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from District 66
Discusses single motherhood

Jessica Hatch

Resident of Beaufort, SC (from NY and CA)
Journalist, former teacher
Military spouse

Teresa Hicks

Columbia, SC
Supported women organizing
Opposed the amendment

Shirley Holcombe

Charleston, SC
Age 54
Anti-ERA and shares views on gay/lesbian rights
Discusses women and the draft

Joan B. Hopkins

Campobello, SC
Age 47
Interested in women’ rights broadly

Dixie Horton

Columbia, SC
Age 30
Interested in the legal status of women and equal employment

Zilla Hinton

Charleston, SC

James E. Jackson

Columbia, SC
Equal Employment Opportunity Officer at Fort Jackson

Mary Jenkins

Beaufort, SC
Small business owner
Economic issues as relates to women

Betty Jennings

Allendale, SC
Employed by Department of Social Services

Jacqueline Johnson

Greenville, SC
Employed by Links Community Actions
Discusses political and military career opportunities for women

Maryneal Jones

Greenville, SC
Newspaper reporter, spouse is a minister
Member of the SC State Conference Coordinating Committee

Flossie June

Sumter, SC
Childcare worker
Attended with two young sons

Liz Zimmerman Keitt

Orangeburg, SC
Purchasing agent at Claflin College

Janie Kelly

McCormick, SC
Head Start employee
African-American woman

Angela (Cargile) Kennedy

James Island, SC
Concerned about representing young mothers

Marguerite King

Rock Hill, SC
Active member of AARP
Interested in women’s rights and the rights of retirees

Penelope R. (Penny) King

Spartanburg, SC
Juvenile justice counselor
From New York City, worked in feminist organizing there

Mildred Knightner

Columbia, SC
Director of the credit union at Benedict College

Elizabeth Lashley

Clemson, SC
Public school teacher
Member, American Association of University Women

Quinton H. Lee

Charleston, SC
30, African-American
Worked as an equal opportunity specialist at a shipyard

Rebecca A. (Becky) Lee

Colleton County, SC
Former journalist

Nelda Leon

Greenville, SC
Coordinator for Greenville Feminist Theatre
NOW member

Helen Lybrand

Columbia, SC
Interested in older women’s issues

Lillian Mackey

West Columbia, SC
Former student at Dr. Wil Lou Gray’s Opportunity School
Worked as a lunch supervisor
Earned high school diploma in her 40s

Sharon MacMillan

Sumter, SC
Experiences with sex discrimination
Described conference as harmonious

Frances Marshall

Johnson, SC
Department of Social Services employee

Henry Martin

Columbia, SC
Age 44
State Farm Agent
Member of Rosewood Baptist Church

Lelia Bell Martin

McCormick County, SC
Age 61

Dolores Melfi

Somerville, SC
Seasonal employee
Interested in international issues

Annie Mitchell

Beaufort, SC
Interested in women in business and women’s legal rights

Joanne Montague

Greenville, SC
Winthrop University alumna

Alice Montgomery

Formerly a surgeon’s assistant
Discusses workplace discrimination

Bessie Moody

Rock Hill, SC
Leader of workshop on biases in education
Supported women’s careers in science and engineering

Nancy Moore

Spartanburg, SC
University teacher
Member of the League of Women Voters and NOW

Jetty R. Mouzon

Ridgeland, SC
Age 58
Social Service Aid with the Department of Social Services
Discusses working as a domestic servant for white families as a teenager

Constance Ashton Myers

Born in New York City, lived in South Carolina
Age 51
Historian of American Trotskyists, the women’s suffrage movement, and feminism
Principal investigator for the IWY Oral History Project
Primarily discusses her experience with employment discrimination legal battles

Marie Nelson

Columbia, SC
Member of NOW

Irene Neuffer

Columbia, SC
Age 57
Member, South Carolina Commission on the Status of Women

Rene Neuffer

Columbia, SC
Age 22

Conyers Norwood

Greenville, SC
Attended to give presentation on contemporary South Carolinian women and art
Docent at Greenville County Museum of Art

Nancy Owen

Charleston, SC
Member of the International Women’s Commission
Employed as an inventory management supply technician
Union member

Annette Pagels

Greenville, SC

George Ann (Mrs. A.E.) Pennebaker

Born in Indiana
Age 61
President of Women for Constitutional Government
Ball State University alumna

John Perna

Cayce, SC
Age 29
Anti-ERA; Believes the government hinders human rights

Ann Peteri

Columbia, SC
Age 38
Political science major at University of South Carolina
NOW member; Pro-ERA

Charlotte Pfeifer

Pineville, NC
Director of Infant Stimulation Project at Winthrop University
Leader of childcare workshop

Phil Pless

Greenville, SC
Bob Jones University graduate

Elaine Reed

Darlington, SC
Political campaign worker
Interested in divorced women’s rights

Anne W. Rehm

Camden, SC
Age 58
Discusses special needs children
Former member of the Kershaw County mental health board

Chris Reynolds

Rock Hill, SC
Winthrop College instructor
Recorder and note taker at conference

Evelyn Richardson

St. George, SC
Employed with Berkley-Dorchester Economics Development Cooperation
Mother of two
Interested in divorced women’s rights

Flora Riley

Oakway, SC
Part-time graduate student at Clemson University
Candidate for National Women’s Conference delegation

Ellen Robertson

Beaufort County, SC (Washington, D.C.)
Nun and director, St. Mary Human Development Center

Cynthia Roddey

Catawba, SC
African-American & Winthrop University graduate
Organizing for families

Shirley Rowland

Chairperson for the Greenville, SC chapter of NOW
Personnel counselor
Discusses job discrimination

Evilyn Salamony

Starr, SC
Retired court reporter
Discusses rape crisis centers, domestic violence, and child abuse

Modjeska Monteith Simkins

Columbia, SC
Age 78; African-American
Leader in public health reform and the Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina

Nan Sharkey

Sullivan’s Island, SC
Pre-school teacher
NOW member
Coordinator of a Charleston-area media collective

Liz Sole

Simpsonville, SC
State Coordinator for NOW
Interested in childcare and child abuse issues

Elaine Stafford

Rock Hill, SC
56 years old

Elisa Staley

Orangeburg, SC
High school student
Aspiring child psychiatrist

Rook Hoyt Sturgis

Interested in workplace inequality, older women’s rights, and money management
Became active in women’s movement after experiencing wage discrimination

Mary Sutherland

North Augusta, SC
Age 23
Supports nontraditional parenting and families

Suzanne Thomson

Charleston, SC
Member of NOW
Discusses opposition to the women’s movement in Charleston

Judith Thompson

Columbia, SC
League of Women Voters, member

Marie Toner

Spartanburg, SC
South Carolina IWY Coordinating Committee, member
Active in Church Women United

Gladys Swindler

Columbia, SC
Age 70
Public affairs chair for the South Carolina Federation of Women’s Clubs
Supported women’s suffrage in early 1920s as a girl scout

Jane Turner

Spartanburg, SC
Age 31
Textiles research technician

Jason Wages

Blythewood, SC
Teacher & part-time graduate student
Interested in women’s history

BJ Washington

Columbia, SC
Program supervisor, individual and family services, Richland County Dept of Social Services
Discusses divorce and single parenting

Sylvia Watts

Columbia, SC
Political science major at University of South Carolina
19-year-old African-American woman

Betty Weaver

Rock Hill, SC
Writer and reporter
Discusses how she became a writer

Donald Welch

Columbia, SC
University of South Carolina staff member
Interested in women’s studies

Mary Wethington

Homemaker and mother
Believes ERA aims are socialistic

Patricia Weel

Charleston, SC
Works as a counselor at a rape crisis center

Lucille Whipper

Charleston, SC
Member of the SC IWY Coordinating Committee
Interested in the legal rights of women

Mary W. Whitlock

Greenville, SC
87 years old
Discusses Christian beliefs

Joy Wiggins

Goose Creek, SC
Senior at Bob Jones University
Positive impression of the conference

Kathleen Wilkerson

McCormick, SC
Age 49
Head Start volunteer
Discusses her difficulties finding paid work to support her large family

Gladys Williams

Bamberg, SC
Member of Sisterhood for Humanity
Discusses continuing education and conference speakers

Lucy Williamson

Columbia, SC
Teenage Program Director at the Columbia YWCA
Interested in addressing sexual assault

Zane Wilson

Florence, SC
Concerned about clashes between anti-ERA and pro-ERA groups

Shelia Younginer

Lexington, SC
Screenwriter at Lexington Intermediate School
Discusses discrimination in the workforce