Sources for further research

There are many resources available for those interested in pursuing additional research on Rosenwald Schools, both within and outside South Carolina. Photographs, oral histories, card files and building schematics are among the primary source materials available through the links provided here.


Projects and Initiatives

Rosenwald School Building Program in South Carolina, 1917-1932

Housed at the South Carolina Department of Archives and History, this comprehensive list of Rosenwald schools in the state of South Carolina lists each school’s year of opening, how many teachers initially hired, photos and schematics used by the Rosenwald Fund.

African American Heritage: Rosenwald School Legacy (South Carolina)

Available through the South Carolina Department of Archives and History, this online resource includes guides, lists and links to other materials broadly to African American heritage in South Carolina with specific focus on Rosenwald Schools.

Rosenwald Schools Initiative

The National Trust for Historic Preservation promotes the need to save and preserve Rosenwald Schools. You can access these resources from the link above, including a Guide for saving and preserving a school.

History South

Web site with a North Carolina focus, Tom Hanchett has included a page dedicated to organizing Rosenwald schools by type of building plan (Nashville or Tuskegee) and by size of school.

South Carolina’s Equalization Schools 1951-1960

Related information on African American education in South Carolina mid-20th century.

National Trust for Historic Preservation

Information on grants to assist in the preservation of Rosenwald Schools history.

FISK University’s Rosenwald Fund Card File Database

Allows searching of all known Rosenwald schools several ways including by state, size of school, year of opening and name of school. Photographs of the schools accompany most.

Historic Land/Building Markers Related to Rosenwald

The state of South Carolina has seventeen historical site markers dedicated to buildings and properties where Rosenwald schools were located. A search of “Rosenwald” on this site will lead to a listing of these sites and their markers. Some include dates of the school’s closing.

Pine Grove, A Rosenwald School Preserved

The Pine Grove School is an original Rosenwald School built in 1923.

Articles & News

Mississippi History Now

Article on Rosenwald Schools in Mississippi.

Historic Black Schools in the South Restored as Landmarks, New York Times

News article featuring the restoration of several Rosenwald schools, including Pine Grove Rosenwald School in Columbia, South Carolina. Photographic slideshow includes photo of Booker T. Washington and Julius Rosenwald together in 1915.

What Rosenwald Schools teach us about racism

Article covering the 2015 National Rosenwald Conference in North Carolina

South Caroliniana Library Collections, USC

Directory of Rosenwald schools in South Carolina

Oral History and Rosenwald Schools: A few examples



School Insurance Photographs at South Carolina Department of Archives and History

Many of the Rosenwald schools listed in our Oral History Collection have photographs collected from the insurance files. Most of the photos are of the initial building on site; there are a few photos of fire damage and additions to the properties.

To access the images:  navigate to the Landing Page, select “Just take me to the search page”, then select the Series: “Insurance File  Photographs, 1935-1952 (S112113)”


Hope Rosenwald School Re-opening

Smithsonian Institute staff speak on historic significance of Rosenwald Schools, Pomaria, Newberry County, South Carolina, 2009.


Selected Bibliography

(from Section I. Major Bibliographic References – the National Register of Historic Places, Multiple Property Documentation Form – The Rosenwald School Building Program in S.C., 1917-1932)

Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Carbaugh, James C. “The Philanthropic Confluence of the General Education Board and the Jeanes, Slater, and Rosenwald Funds: African-American Education in South Carolina, 1900-1930.” Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson University, 1997.

Embree, Edwin R. and Julia Waxman. Investment in People: The Story of the Julius Rosenwald Fund. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949.

Goforth, Preston Cleveland. “Financial Aid to Negro Education in South Carolina Received from Outside Sources from 1917-1918 to 1927-28 Inclusive.” M.A. thesis, University of South Carolina, 1931.

Hoffschwelle, Mary S. Preserving Rosenwald Schools. The National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2003. ( this is now available on the National Trust website and was updated in 2012.)

Hoffschwelle, Mary S. The Rosenwald Schools of the American South. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006.

“Report of State Agent for Negro Schools.” in Annual Report of the State Superintendent of Education of the State of South Carolina, 1917-1932. Columbia: South Carolina Department of Education.

Richardson, Katherine H. “African-American Primary and Secondary Public School Buildings in South Carolina, ca. 1895-1954.” National Register Multiple Property Nomination Documentation Form. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, S.C.

Riles, Karen D. “Historic and Architectural Resources Associated with the Rosenwald School Building Program.” National Register Multiple Property Nomination Documentation Form, Texas State Historic Preservation Office, Texas Historical Commission, Austin, Texas.

“The Rosenwald School Building Fund and Associated Buildings (1913-1937).” National Register Multiple Property Nomination Documentation Form. Alabama State Historic Preservation Office, Alabama Historical Commission, Montgomery, Ala.